Semantic Web
Trust and Security Resource Guide


The security, trust, information quality and privacy issues arising from the vision of the Semantic Web as a global information integration infrastructure are mainly unsolved.

This resource guide collects papers, ontologies, schemata and standards that might be building blocks for the future Semantic Web trust layer.

(Recent additions are added at the end of the corresponding category.)


  1. Framework for Security and Trust Standards. G.Klyne, SWAD-Europe, December 2002 - Gives and overview about current security and trust standards and indicates how they might be integrated in a Semantic Web trust and policy framework.
  2. Trust Networks on the Semantic Web. Jennifer Golbeck, James Hendler, Bijan Parsia, WWW 2003. - Describes a web-of-trust/reputation system based on FOAF profiles and explicite ratings and proposes the use of network analysis to make trust recommendations based on implicite ratings.
  3. Finding Bacon's Key - Does Google Show How the Semantic Web Could Replace Public Key Infrastructure? Joseph M. Reagle Jr., 2002. - Uses dense meshes of inter-related statements for trust evaluation. Different approach to the usual reputation-based systems. Interesting and Semantic Web-specific.
  4. Towards security and trust management policies on the Web. Theo Dimitrakos, Brian Matthews, Juan Bicarregui, CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, UK. The paper argues for an RDF encoded policy language that could make a standardized security layer for the Semantic Web possible.
  5. Trusting Information Sources One Citizen at a Time. Yolanda Gil, Varun Ratnakar. First International Semantic Web Conference, June 2002. - Describes TRELLIS an RDF based reputation system for rateing information sources.
  6. Adding Security Features to FIPA Agent Platforms. Min ZHANG, Ahmed KARMOUCH, 2001 - Presents a security architecture based on the FIPA agent platform.
  7. Developing Secure Agent Systems Using Delegation Based Trust Management. Lalana Kagal, Tim Finin, Anupam Joshi, AAMAS 2002. - Describes the use of a DAML+OIL security ontology in a FIPA multi-agent system.
  8. A Security Architecture Based on Trust Management for Pervasive Computing Systems. Lalana Kagal, Jeffrey Undercoffer, Filip Perich, Anupam Joshi, Tim Finin, 2002. - This paper presents an infrastructure that complements existing security features like Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Role Based Access Control with a distributed trust management system.
  9. Security Mark-up and Rules. Grit Denker, Dagstuhl Seminar on “Rule Markup Techniques”, 2002. - Slides from the seminar proposing a security ontology for marking up access control restrictions and data integrity.
  10. Towards Security in DAML. Grit Denker, Internal Report, SRI International. Proposes a security ontology that is the basis for handling access control restrictions and data integrity measures of web resources.
  11. A Semantic Approach for Access Control in Web Services. Mariemma I. Yagüe, José M. Troya, EUroWeb 2002. Slides proposing a Semantic Policy Language for distributed access control and enforcement in a Web Services context.
  12. Agents, Trust, and Information Access on the Semantic Web, Timothy Finin and Anupam Joshi, ACM SIGMOD, Dezember 2002. - Argues for a ontology based policy language for defining security requirements and a distributed trust management system as main components of a Semantic Web security framework.
  13. Conceptual Model of Web Service Reputation. E.M. Maximilien, M. Singh, ACM SIGMOD, Dezember 2002. - Defines a general model for service reputation.
  14. W3C recommendations for privacy, security, trust. Brian Matthews, W3C UK Office at RAL, March 2002. - Short presentation about current W3C activities.
  15. Some Thoughts on Agent Trust and Delegation. YuhJong Hu, 2001. Paper about agent trust and delegation using RDF to encode communicative acts.
  16. Building Privacy into the Semantic Web: An Ontology Needed Now. Anya Kim, Lance J. Hoffman, C. Dianne Martin, Semantic Web Workshop WWW 2002. - The paper argues, that the Semantic Web will profoundly affect how personal information is collected and used and demands that privacy mechanisms are incoperated into the Semantic Web architecture stack.
  17. Diffuse - Guide to Trust Services. The guide gives an overview over trust architectures and standards.
  18. Diffuse - Guide to Information Security. The guide gives an overview over security architectures and standards.
  19. KAoS Policy and Domain Services: Toward a Description-Logic Approach to Policy Representation, Deconfliction, and Enforcement. A. Uszok, J. Bradshaw, R. Jeffers, N. Suri, P. Hayes, M. Breedy, L. Bunch, M. Johnson, S. Kulkarni, J. Lott. - Policy framework and toolset based on a DAML description-logic-based ontology that allows the specification, management, conflict resolution and enforcement of policies within an agent, grid or web service context.
  20. Terraforming Cyberspace. Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Niranjan Suri, Alberto J. Cañas, Robert Davis, Kenneth Ford, Robert Hoffman, Renia Jeffers, Thomas Reichherzer, IEEE Computer, July 2001 (Vol. 34, No. 7) - Article about policy-based agent management.
  21. The Design of Reliable Trust Management Systems for Electronic Trading Communities, Chrysanthos Dellarocas. Working Paper about reputation systems that highlights the use of collaborative filtering mechanisms to eliminate unfair ratings. It might be interesting to think about, how collaborative filtering could also be used for trust building in semantic web applications.
  22. Security in a Web Services World: A Proposed Architecture and Roadmap. A Joint White Paper from IBM Corporation and Microsoft Corporation. April 2002.
  23. Scenarios for using RDF in support of Trust and Access Control. G. Klyne, SWAD-Europe, December 2002 - This memo describes the scenarios used for prototyping in the SWAD project, to learn if and how RDF can be used to support trust in open systems.
  24. Using RDF for Home Network Configuration. G. Klyne, SWAD-Europe, December 2002 - Meno that describes the use of RDF metadata in configuring Internet access from a home network.
  25. Weaving a Web of Trust. Rohit Khare, Adam Rifkin. WWW Journal (Volume 2, Number 3, Pages 77-112), Summer 1997 - Interesting 'historic' background paper.
  26. A Proof-Carrying Authorization System. Lujo Bauer, Michael A. Schneider, Edward W. Felten, April 2001 - Paper describing how proof-carrying autorization can be used to control access to web pages.
  27. W3C ACL System. Eric Prud'hommeaux, 2001. Describes the RDF- and proof-based access controll system used for the W3C website.
  28. Bausteine einer Vertrauens- und Sicherheitsarchitektur für das Semantic Web. Chris Bizer, XMIDX-DWS2003, February 2003 - Slides in German language, comparing different trust building approaches for the semantic web.
  29. An Infrastructure for Distributed Trust Management. Lalana Kagal, Scott Cost, Harry Chen, Timothy Finin, Yun Peng, Workshop on Norms and Institutions in Multiagent Systems, Autonomous Agents 2001, Montreal, May 2001 - This paper discusses the UMBC infrastructure for handling distributed security and trust. It outlines a method for access control across domains that handles inter domain trust relationships.
  30. A Delegation Based Model for Distributed Trust. Lalana Kagal, Timothy Finin, Yun Peng. This paper describes a security and trust management model for in a multi-agent systems based on FIPA Interaction Protocols.
  31. Moving from Security to Distributed Trust in Ubiquitous Computing Environments. Lalana Kagal, Tim Finin and Anupam Joshi, IEEE Computer, December 2001 - This paper proposes a lightweight solution for distributed trust management that is applicable for pervasive computing environments.
  32. Personal Data Protection in the Semantic Web. Ryan Lee - Masters thesis written at MIT/W3C.
  33. A Logical Policy Language for a Pervasive Computing Environment. Lalana Kagal, Tim Finin and Anupam Joshi, Fourth IEEE International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks, Lake Como, 4-6 June, 2003.
  34. Open Rating Systems. R. Guha, IBM Research and Stanford Knowledge Lab - Describes the combination of a reputation system with a web of trust for content rating.
  35. Signing RDF Graphs. Jeremy Carroll, ISWC2003 - Describes an algorithm for the canonicalization of RDF graphs in order to enable the digital signing of graphs.
  36. A Policy Based Approach to Security for the Semantic Web - Lalana Kagal, Tim Finin, Anupam Joshi, ISWC2003.
  37. Security for DAML Web Services: Annotation and Matchmaking - Grit Denker, Tim Finin, Lalana Kagal, Massimo Paolucci, Katia Sycara, ISWC2003.
  38. Trust Management for the Semantic Web - Rakesh Agrawal, Pedro Domingos, Matthew Richardson, ISWC2003 - The paper describes a Web-of-Trust architecture based on "belives" in statements and "trust" in other agents.
  39. Trust Based Knowledge Outsourcing for Semantic Web Agents - Li Ding, Lina Zhou, Tim Finin, IEEE/WIC International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI 2003), Beijing, October 2003.
  40. A Semantic based Privacy Framework for Web Services - Tumer, A.; Dorgac, A.; Toroslu, I., WWW 2003 - ESSW' 03.
  41. Reference Literature for Spectrum - List of relevant trust literature from the Spectrum project.
  42. Trust on the Semantic Web Pyramid: Some Issues and Challenges - Yuh-Jong Hu, Se-Ting, Chen, and Min-Huei, Yang.
  43. Semantic Web Languages for Policy Representation and Reasoning: A Comparison of KAoS, Rei, and Ponder - Gianluca Tonti, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Renia Jeffers, Rebecca Montanari, Niranjan Suri and Andrzej Uszok
  44. An Approach for the Ranking of Query Results in the Semantic Web - Nenad Stojanovic, Rudi Studer, Ljiljana Stojanovic
  45. Representing Contextualized Data using Semantic Web Tools - Robert MacGregor, In-Young Ko - Interesting paper about using quants instead of triples to represent context and provenance information. Could be important for building trusted knowledge bases.
  46. Why and Where: A Characterization of Data Provenance - Peter Buneman, Sanjeev Khanna, Wang-Chiew Tan - Interesting paper from a data base viewpoint about data provenance and lineage.
  47. Practical Lineage Tracing in Data Warehouses - Yingwei Cui, Jennifer Widom - Paper about data provenance and lineage for complex queries.
  48. Weaving the Web of Belief into the Semantic Web. Li Ding, Timothy Finin. Submitted to WWW2004.
  49. Dynamic Knowledge Provenance. Jingwei Huang, Mark S. Fox - Logic-based approach for determinateing the validity of web information over time.
  50. Inferencing and Truth Maintenance in RDF Schema. Jeen Broekstra, Arjohn Kampman - Paper about truth maintenance in changing RDF-S models by tracking deductive dependencies between statements.
  51. Spreading Activation Models for Trust Propagation. Cai-Nicolas Ziegler, Georg Lausen. To appear at IEEE International Conference on e-Technology, e-Commerce, and e-Service (EEE '04), March 29-31, 2004, Taipei, Taiwan.
  52. Attack resistant trust metrics. Raphael L. Levien. PhD Thesis, UC Berkeley 2002 - Proposes the Advogato group trust metric.
  53. Formalising Trust as a Computational Concept. Stephen Paul Marsh. PhD Thesis, University of Stirling 1994 - Classic, widely cieted thesis.
  54. Inferring Reputation on the Semantic Web. Jennifer Golbeck, James Hendler.
  55. W5: The Five W's of the World Wide Web. Massimo Marchiori - Second International Conference on Trust Management, 2004. - Interesting general thoughts about the SemWeb trust layer and its costs.
  56. E-notebook Middleware for Accountability and Reputation Based Trust in Distributed Data Sharing Communities. Paul Ruth et all - Second International Conference on Trust Management, 2004 - Interesting pragmatic non-RDF trust architecture. Design principles could be reused for the Semantic Web.
  57. Propagation of Trust and Distrust. Guha et all, WWW2004.
  58. Christian Bizer, Radoslaw Oldakowski: Using Context- and Content-Based Trust Policies on the Semantic Web. WWW2004 - Poster arguing for content- and context-based trust policies based on Named Graphs.
  59. Jeremy Carroll, Christian Bizer, Patrick Hayes, Patrick Stickler: Named Graphs, Provenance and Trust. HPL Technical Report - Paper extending RDF to Named Graphs. The extension provides a formally defined framework which could be a foundation for the Semantic Web trust layer.
  60. A P3P Assurance Signature Profile. Joseph Reagle. W3C Note, 2001.
  61. Jeremy Carroll, Christian Bizer: The Semantic Web Trust Layer. Developers Day Talk at The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2004), New York, May 2004.
  62. Trust Negotiation for Semantic Web Services. Daniel Olmedilla, Ruben Lara, Axel Polleres, Holger Lausen - Proposes the usage of the Peertrust language within the WSMO framework.
  63. Moleskiing: a Trust-aware Decentralized Recommender System. Paolo Avesani, Paolo Massa, Roberto Tiella. FOAF Workshop at DERI Galway, September 2004.
  64. Redefining Web-of-Trust: reputation, recommendations, responsibility and trust among peers Viktor S. Grishchenko. FOAF Workshop at DERI Galway, September 2004.
  65. Technical and Privacy Challenges for Integrating FOAF into Existing Applications. Joseph Smarr. FOAF Workshop at DERI Galway, September 2004.
  66. Survey of Papers from the iTrust 2003 and 2004 Trust Management Conferences. G.Klyne - There are also some slides about the survey from an iTrust workshop and a N3 version of the data available.
  67. Computational Models of Trust and Reputation: Agents, Evolutionary Games, and Social Networks. Lik Mui - PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology - 2002.
  68. Trust Wiki - Resource guide maintained by Li Ding at the University of Maryland. Very interesting and similar to this page :-)
  69. Semantic Web Publishing using Named Graphs. Jeremy Carroll, Christian Bizer, Patrick Hayes, Patrick Stickler. Workshop on Trust, Security, and Reputation on the Semantic Web at ISWC2004, Hiroshima, Japan, November 2004.
  70. Trust Strategies for the Semantic Web. Kieron O’Hara, Harith Alani, Yannis Kalfoglou, and Nigel Shadbolt. Workshop on Trust, Security, and Reputation on the Semantic Web at ISWC2004, Hiroshima, Japan, November 2004.
  71. Contexts for the Semantic Web. R.Guha, R.McCool and R.Fikes. ISWC 2004
  72. Creating a Policy-Aware Web: Discretionary, Rule-based Access for the World Wide Web. Weitzner, Daniel, Hendler, James, Berners-Lee, Tim and Connolly, Dan. In "Web and Information Security" - 2004
  73. Computing the digest of an RDF graph. Craig Sayers, Alan H. Karp - Paper describing another RDF C14N method. So there are two now: Jeremy's and this one.
  74. Quality-Driven Query Answering for Integrated Information Systems. Felix Naumann - Really interesting PdD thesis about quality driven query plans. Brings what is discussed in the Semantic Web community under the label "Trust" together with what is discussed in the database community under the label "Information Quality".
  75. Signing individual fragments on an RDF graph. Giovanni Tummarello, Christian Morbidoni, Paolo Puliti, Francesco Piazza. Poster at WWW2005
  76. Enhancing Web Privacy Protection through Declarative Policies. Pranam Kolari, Li Ding, Shashidhara Ganjugunte, Lalana Kagal, Anupam Joshi, and Tim Finin. In proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Policy for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY 2005)
  77. The Transparency Paradox: Privacy design strategies for open information networks. Danny Weitzner, W3C Privacy Activity Lead, - Very interesting paper about privacy and the Semantic Web.
  78. RDF Query for Policy Management. Eric Prud`hommeaux. WWW2005 Policy Workshop.
  79. Partial RDF Encryption as a Method for Addressee-Oriented Publishing in the Semantic Web. Mark Giereth. Poster at 2nd European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005).
  80. Rein : Where Policies Meet Rules in the Semantic Web. Lalana Kagal and Tim Berners-Lee - Decentralized framework for representing and reasoning over distributed policies in the Semantic Web using Rei and CWM.
  81. Beyond Accuracy: What Data Quality Means to Data Consumers, Journal of Management Information System, Spring 1996, Volume 12, No. 4. pp. 5-33. Richard Wang and Diane Strong. - Important information quality article arguing that information quality goes beyond believability and trust.
  82. "Toward Quality Data: An Attribute-based Approach," Decision Support System 13, 1995, pp. 349-372. Richard Y. Wang, M.P. Ready, and Henry B. Kon. - Very interesting paper extending the relational data model with quality meta data at attribute level. Relates closely to the Named Graphs work in the RDF world.
  83. Information Quality Benchmarks: Product and Service Performance. Beverly K. Kahn, Diane M. Strong, and Richard Y. Wang. Interesting classification of information quality dimensions.
  84. Data Quality on the Web. Report about a Dagstuhl seminar trying to relate infomation quality and the Web. Contains a valuable collection of links.
  85. PeerTrust: Automated Trust Negotiation for Peers on the Semantic Web. Wolfgang Nejdl, Daniel Olmedilla, Marianne Winslett. Workshop on Secure Data Management in a Connected World (SDM'04) in conjunction with 30th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, Aug.-Sep. 2004, Toronto, Canada
  86. Ontology-Based Policy Specification and Management. W. Nejdl, D. Olmedilla, M. Winslett, C. C. Zhang, European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), May/Jun. 2005, Heraklion, Greece
  87. The Pudding of Trust. S. Staab, B. Bhargava, L. Lilien, A. Rosenthal, M. Winslett, M. Sloman, T. S. Dillon, E. Chang, F. K. Hussain, W. Nejdl, D. Olmedilla, V. Kashyap, IEEE Intelligent Systems Journal, Vol. 19(5), pp. 74-88, Sep./Oct. 2004
  88. Rule-based Policy Specification: State of the Art and Future Work. P. A. Bonatti, N. Shahmehri, C. Duma, D. Olmedilla, W. Nejdl, M. Baldoni, C. Baroglio, A. Martelli, V. Patti, P. Coraggio, G. Antoniou, J. Peer, N. E. Fuchs, Project deliverable D1, Working Group I2, EU NoE REWERSE, Sep. 2004
  89. Enhancing Web Privacy Protection through Declarative Policies. Pranam Kolari, Li Ding, Shashidhara Ganjugunte, Lalana Kagal, Anupam Joshi, and Tim Finin, Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Policy for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY 2005), June 2005.
  90. Tracking RDF Graph Provenance using RDF Molecules, Li Ding, Tim Finin, Yun Peng, Paulo Pinheiro da Silva, and Deborah L. McGuinness, TR-CS-05-06, April 30, 2005
  91. Semantic Web Policies - A Discussion of Requirements and Research Issues, P.A. Bonatti1, C. Duma, N. Fuchs, W. Nejdl, D. Olmedilla, J. Peer, and
    N. Shahmehri, ESWC 2006, June 2006.
  92. A survey of trust and reputation systems for online service provision. Audun Jøsang, Roslan Ismail and Colin Boyd, 2006. - Nice up-to-date survey covering the state of the art in repution systems.
  93. Semantic Digital Rights Management for Controlled P2P RDF Metadata Diffusion. Roberto Garcia, Giovanni Tummarello, 2nd Semantic Web Policy Workshop (SWPW'06).
  94. Trust Policies for Semantic Web Repositories. Vinicius da Silva Almendra, Daniel Schwabe, 2nd Semantic Web Policy Workshop (SWPW'06).
  95. Explanation Interfaces for the Semantic Web: Issues and Models. Deborah L. McGuinness, Li Ding, Alyssa Glass, Cynthia Chang, Honglei Zeng and Vasco Furtado, 3rd Semantic Web User Interaction Workshop (SWUI2006).
  96. Christian Bizer: Quality-Driven Information Filtering in the Context of Web-Based Information Systems. Dissertation, Berlin, Germany, March 2007.

Ontologies, RDF Schemata and Applications

  1. RDF Schema for P3P. Brian McBride, Rigo Wenning, Lorrie Cranor, W3C Note, January 2002 - RDF version of the P3P specification.
  2. CC/PP (Composite Capabilities/Preference Profiles). RDF-based framework for the management of device profile information.
  3. Lalana Kagal, UMBC, 2001 - DAML ontology for describing trust relationships.
  4. wot 0.1 - Web of Trust. Small RDF vocabulary for signing and assurance of RDF documents.
  5. RDF schema for crypto built-in functions in cwm.
  6. Access Control and Data Integrity for DAML+OIL and DAML-S. Grit Denker, SRI International - Paper that proposes a general security ontology.
  7. KAoS Policy Ontology: Policy.daml and Actions.daml - DAML policy ontology used in the KAoS project.
  8. TRELLIS - TRELLIS is an RDF based reputation system for rateing information sources. Availible as open source software.
  9. OWL Security Ontology by Roger Costello. Overview slide - Mini ontology for classifing documents as "Confidential", "Secret", "SBU", "FOUO" or "PAP".
  10. Semantic Web Tutorial Using N3, Section Trust. Tim Berners-Lee, WWW2003
  11. MIND SWAP Trust Ontology. Simple DAML Trust Ontology.
  12. Cryptography Ontology (Crypto). Specifies as set of RDF classes to use to specify encryption-related information. Derived in part from the W3C "XML Encryption Syntax and Processing" specifications.
  13. OREL: An Ontology-based Rights Expression Language.
  14. Rei: A policy specification language in RDF.
  15. Semantic Web Publishing (SWP) Vocabulary. Provides terms for signing named graphs and expressing propositional attitudes. User Manual
  16. SWAD-Europe Vocabularies and Architecture for Implementing Trust in the Semantic Web
  17. TriQL.P Trust Architecture, supporting subjective trust policies based on information context, information content and reputation. Integration into the Piggy Bank Semantic Web browser.
  18. Rei : A Policy Specification Language. Language for expressing access control policies by Lalana Kagal, Tim Finin and Anupam Joshi.
  19. TriQL.P Trust Policies enabled Semantic Web Browser. Filters information using a wide range of user-definable trust policies and explains filtering decisions in natural language.
  20. Rein Policy Framework for the Semantic Web. Decentralized framework for representing and reasoning over distributed policies in the Semantic Web using Rei and CWM. Lalana Kagal and Tim Berners-Lee.
  21. Semantic Digital Rights Management System. Implementation of a Digital Rights Management (DRM) System based on Semantic Web technologies.
  22. WIQA - Information Quality Assessment enabled Semantic Web Browser. Filters information using a wide range of user-definable information quality assessment policies and explains filtering decisions in natural language. Successor of the TriQL.P browser.
  23. WIQA - Web Information Quality Assessment Framework. Set of software components that can be used by applications to empower information consumers to employ a wide range of different information quality assessment policies to filter Web content.

Relevant Non-RDF Standards

  1. XACML - eXtensible Access Control Markup Language , OASIS Committee Secification, November 2002 - OASIS specification using XML for expressing access policies.
  2. SAML - Security Assertion Markup Language. OASIS XML-based security standard for exchanging authentication and authorization information.
  3. PICS - Platform for Internet Content Selection, Rating Services and Rating Systems. Miller, J., Resnick, P. and D. Singer, W3C Recommendation REC-PICS-services, October 1996 - Open framework for Web content selection.
  4. P3P - Platform for Privacy Preferences 1.0 Specification. W3C Recommendation, April 2002- Standard providing a automated way for users to gain more control over the use of personal information on Web sites they visit.
  5. WSS - Web Services Security Core Specification. OASIS Working Draft, November 2002. - Specifies SOAP enhancements to provide message integrity, message confidentiality, and single message authentication.
  6. FIPA 98 Agent Security Management - Agent Security Specification. Marked as obsolete by FIFA but still contains some interesting ideas.
  7. XrML - The Digital Rights Language for Trusted Content and Services. XrML will form the basis for a future OASIS digital rights standard.
  8. OpenPGP Message Format. Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H. and R. Thayer, RFC 2440, November 1998 - IETF standard for signing and encrypting data objects.
  9. XMLENC - XML Encryption Syntax and Processing. W3C Recommendation, December 2002
  10. XMLDSIG - XML-Signature Syntax and Processing. W3C Recommendation, February 2002.
  11. XML Key Management Specification (XKMS). W3C Note, March 2001.
  12. X.509 - ITU standard format for public key certificates.
  13. SSL - Secure Socket Layer. Commonly used security protocol developed by Netscape.
  14. P3P Preference Exchange Language 1.0 (APPEL1.0). W3C Working Draft.

Working Groups and Research Projects

  1. W3C XML Signature Working Group. Developes an XML compliant syntax for representing digital signatures of Web resources.
  2. W3C XML Encryption Working Group. Developes an XML syntax to represent encrypted content and information that enables an intended recipient to decrypt it.
  3. W3C XML Key Management Working Group. Developes a specification of XML application/protocol that allows a simple client to obtain key information from a web service.
  4. SWAD Europe - WP11: Distributed trust systems. Workpackage within the SWAD Europe project that aims at building a framework for distributed trust management in Semantic Web applications.
  5. OASIS Rights Language Technical Committee (TC). The purpose of this TC is to define the industry standard for a digital rights language that should support a wide variety of business models. The TC takes XrML as a basis for further developements.
  6. OASIS Digital Signature Services Technical Committee (TC). Developes techniques for using digital signatures together with Web Services.
  7. FIPA Security, Trust and Privacy Technical Committee (TC). The objective of the committee is to lead research and development of security for multi-agent and multi-domain agent systems.
  8. i-Trust. 5th framework EU IST project investigating the role of trust as a means of establishing security and confidence in the global computing infrastructure.
  9. Reputation Research Network. CISE funded web site that collects information and papers about reputation systems.
  10. Diffuse. EU IST funded project that provides up-to-date reference and guidance information on available and emerging standards and specifications that facilitate the electronic exchange of information, including security standards.
  11. daml-security mailing list, not very active.
  12. T3 Group - TRUST, THEORY & TECNOLOGY at the Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome, Italy.
  13. TrustCom. 6th framework EU IST project for developing a framework for trust, security and contract management in dynamically-evolving virtual organisations.
  14. SECURE: Secure Environments for Collaboration among Ubiquitous Roaming Entities. IST Project: IST-2001-32486
  15. SWAD-Europe Trust Activity.
  16. Policy-aware Web Project. Interesting research project about rule-based access control on the Web involving Tim Berners-Lee, Danny Weitzner, Jim Hendler and Lalana Kagal.
  17. MIT Total Data Quality Management Program. Well known information quality research group around Richard Wang.
  18. REWERSE WG I2 - Policy language, enforcement, composition. Part of the 6th framework EU network of excellence 'Reasoning on the Web'.
  19. PeerTrust – Security in Distributed Environments. Project about automated trust negotiation for peers on the Semantic Web.

Conferences and Workshops

  1. 1st International Conference on Trust Management. 28-30 May 2003, Crete, Greece - Conference organized by the i-Trust EU IST project.
  2. PET2003: Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies. 26-28 March 2003, Dresden, Germany.
  3. ISWC 2003: International Semantic Web Conference. Florida, USA.
  4. Fourth IEEE International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks, Lake Como, 4-6 June, 2003. Part of the IEEE Policy Workshops series.
  5. Workshop on Metadata for Security. November 3-7, 2003. Catania, Sicily, Italy.
  6. First International Workshop on Formal Aspects in Security and Trust (FAST). 8-9 September 2003, Pisa, Italy.
  7. 2nd International Conference on Trust Management. 29th March to 1st April 2004, Oxford, UK - Conference organized by the i-Trust EU IST project.
  8. ISWC 2004: 3rd International Semantic Web Conference. Hiroshima, Japan.
  9. Trust, Security, and Reputation on the Semantic Web. First workshop on Semantic Web trust and security. Colocated with ISWC 2004.
  10. WWW 2004 Delelopers Day, Trust on the Web Track. New York, May 2004.
  11. Trust, Recommendations, Evidence and other Collaboration Know-how Track at the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing 2005, March 2005, Santa Fe, USA
  12. First Workshop on Pervasive Security, Privacy and Trust (PSPT) held in conjunction with MobiQuitous 2004, August 2004, Boston, USA.
  13. Workshop on Formal Aspects of Security and Trust (FAST 2004) held in conjunction with the 18th IFIP World Computer Congress (WCC2004), August 2004, Toulouse, France.
  14. International Conference on Information Quality (ICIQ 2005), 4th November 2005.
  15. 1st International Symposium of Web Intelligence and Security (WIS) at JCIS, Salt Lake City, July 21-26 2005.
  16. Policy Management for the Web, at WWW2005, Tuesday 10 May 2005, Chiba, Japan.
  17. The third international Workshop on Formal Aspects in Security and Trust (FAST2005), affiliated woth FM05, 18-22 July 2005, Newcastle, UK.
  18. First International Workshop on Trust, Security and Privacy for Ubiquitous Computing (TSPUC 2005), affiliated with IEEE WOWMOM 2005, June 13, 2005, Taormina, Italy.
  19. International Symposium on Explanation-aware Computing (ExaCt2005), Washington, D.C. - November 3-6, 2005
  20. Workshop on Policy Management for the Web at WWW2005, May 2005, Chiba, Japan.
  21. Semantic Web and Policy Workshop at ISWC2005, November 2005, Galway, Ireland.
  22. Workshop on Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web at ISWC2005, November 2005, Galway, Ireland.
  23. 4th International Conference on Trust Management (iTrust'2006), 16-19 May 2006, Pisa, Italy.
  24. Models of Trust for the Web (MTW'06), colocated with WWW 2006, May 23-26, 2006, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  25. Security, Privacy, and Trust in Web Services, colocated with DAIS2006, June 13-16, 2006, Bologna, Italy.
  26. International Provenance and Annotation Workshop (IPAW'06), May 3-5, 2006, Chicago, USA.
  27. 2nd International Semantic Web Policy Workshop (SWPW'06), in conjunction with ISWC 2006, November 2006, Athens, USA
  28. Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web (URSW), in conjunction with ISWC 2006, November 2006, Athens, USA
  29. IEEE Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (Policy 2007), June 2007, Bologna, Italy
  30. First International Workshop on Secure Semantic Web (SSW'08) in conjunction with
    the 24th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE'08), April 2008, Cancun, México (Program Committee)


Background: What is the Semantic Web?

  • W3C Semantic Web Overview about Semantic Web activities at W3C.
  • The Semantic Web. Tim Berners-Lee, Ora Lassila, James Hendler. Scientific American, May 2001.
  • W3C Semantic Web Activity. Marja-Riitta Koivunen and Eric Miller, 2001 - General introduction to the Semantic Web and the W3C Semantic Web activity.



  • 10-10-07: Added workshop on Semantic Web Security.
  • 03-12-07: Added some papers and IEEE Policy workshop.
  • 10-17-06: Added the WIQA browser and framework.
  • 09-28-06: Some new papers and workshops added.
  • 11-22-05: MTW'06 workshop added.
  • 10-25-05: Added information posted by Tim Finin.
  • 08-30-05: Added information posted by Daniel Olmedilla.
  • 08-11-05: Added a bunch of papers about information quality research from Richard Wang, MIT, TDQM program.
  • 05-08-05: Added ISWC2005 policy workshop and the Rei policy language.
  • 05-17-05: WWW2005 Policy workshop and some papers added.
  • 02-17-05: TriQL.P Trust Architecture added.
  • 02-08-05: ExaCt2005 workshop added.
  • 12-16-04: Policy workshop at WWW2005 added .
  • 12-09-04: Information Quality Conference and Felix Naumann's PdD added.
  • 11-22-04: Some ISWC 2004 Trust workshop papers, Weitzner, TBL, Hendler policy paper, Guha context paper and SWAD-Europe vocabs added.
  • 10-06-04: Graham's paper survey and the SECURE project added.
  • 09-23-04: Some papers from the FOAF Workshop at DERI added.
  • 09-10-04: FAST 2004 workshop added.
  • 06-16-04: ACM SAC trust track added.
  • 05-27-04: WWW2004 dev day workshop added.
  • 05-11-04: OREL digital rights expression language added.
  • 04-19-04: ISWC workshop, i-trust conference added.
  • 04-19-04: WWW2004 and i-trust papers added.
  • 01-09-04: Paper about trust propagation added.
  • 01-02-04: Crypto ontology added.
  • 01-02-04: Paper about truth maintanance in RDF-S models added.
  • 12-16-03: Two papers from the DB community about provenance and lineage added.
  • 12-02-03: MacGregor paper about context and quads added.
  • 09-25-03: Semantic Web trust resource guide maintained by Li Ding added.
  • 09-25-03: Min-Huei, Yang et al. Trust issues and challenges paper added.
  • 08-04-03: Tumer et al. privacy paper added.
  • 07-07-03: WI 2003 paper added.
  • 06-26-03: ISWC2003 papers added.
  • 06-17-03: Semantic Web Tutorial Using N3 - Section Trust by Tim Berners-Lee added.
  • 05-15-03: OWL Security Ontology by Roger Costello added.
  • 04-23-03: Open Rating Systems paper by R. Guha added.
  • 03-24-03: Policy language paper by Tim Finin added.
  • 02-24-03: TRELLIS Version 3.0 added.
  • 02-21-03: Ryan Lee's MIT/W3C master thesis added.
  • 02-20-03: UMBC trust papers added after feedback from Timothy W. Finin, UMBC, USA.
  • 02-10-03: Weaving the Web of Trust, Proof-Carrying Authorization System and W3C ACL papers added. Conferences and Workshops section added.
  • 02-10-03: Trust Conference added after feedback from Christos Nikolaou , i-Trust, Greece.
  • 02-07-03: Memos about trust scenarios and access control experiment added after feedback from G. Klyne, SWAD Europe, UK.
  • 02-03-03: Added SWAD Europe WP and Dellarocas paper about collaborative filtering.
  • 01-31-03: Added IBM/Microsoft Webservice Security Roadmap.
  • 01-31-03: Added some papers and the KAoS ontology after feedback from Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, IHMC, USA.
  • 01-25-03: Initial version of this document.




Freie Universität Berlin - Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft - Institut für Produktion, Wirtschaftsinformatik und OR
Last Update: 08.06.2005